8.11.07

Saudade: Das portugiesischste aller Gefühle gehört zu den „schönsten Wörtern der Welt“

Was ist wohl das schönste Wort der Welt?

Diese gar nicht so einfache Frage stellte sich das Berliner Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen zu Beginn diesen Jahres - und erhielt daraufhin Antworten von 2.469 Menschen aus 58 Ländern.
Aus allen Ecken dieser Erde drang das Gewisper und Gemurmel der schöner, geheimnisvoller und ausdrucksstark
er Wörter nach Berlin.
Die vom Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen eingesetzte dreiköpfige Jury hatte also keine leichte Aufgabe zu bewältigen. Die ihrer Ansicht nach schönsten Wörter sammelte sie im "schönsten ABC der Welt" (hier geht es zum Download der Broschüre). Zehn Wörter aus diesem Weltalphabet wurden besonders hervorgehoben: Das Rennen um das schönste Wort der Welt machte das türkische Yakamoz („die Widerspiegelung des Mondes im Wasser").

Doch auch ein Beitrag aus Portugal landete weit vorne, auf dem sechsten Platz: Die Saudade. Zu Recht. Denn Saudade ist ein unübersetzbares Wort - und doch ein universelles Gefühl, das wir alle vielleicht schon einmal verspürt haben.

Das Wort Saudade spürt der Melancholie, dem gefühlten Loch im Herzen nach, das uns bei der Sehnsucht nach einem Menschen oder einer geliebten Sache beschleicht. Besser also, man nähert sich der Saudade nicht mit dem Wörterbuch - sondern lässt sich vom Klang des Wortes treiben: Sau - da - de.
Oder, wie die Brasilianer sagen, Sau - da - dadji. Da klingt bereits viel durch: Einsamkeit (abgeleitet vom lateinischen solitate), Ferne, abgerundet mit dem weichen, versöhnlichen Klang des Portugiesischen.
Entstanden ist der Begriff der Saudade vermutlich irgendwann zwischen dem 12. und 15.Jahrhundert. Ihre erste große Blüte erlebte die Saudade während der großen portugiesischen Entdeckungsreisen, als Seefahrer wie Daheimgebliebene den Schmerz der Entfernung und Einsamkeit verarbeiten mussten.


Später sprang die Saudade auch nach Brasilien über, wo das Gefühl ebenso wie in Portugal mit Hingabe gepflegt wird. Saudade ist also immer auch die Einsamkeit und Sehnsucht nach jemand oder nach etwas. Nach dem nicht ganz Fertigen, das einem zum Ganzsein fehlt. Und damit ist die Saudade auch ein positives Gefühl, denn in ihr schwingt eine tiefe Verbundenheit mit anderen Menschen über die weitesten Entfernungen hinweg mit. Portugiesische Boote tragen oft den Namen Saudade - und hier, auf dem Meer, ist die Saudade wohl auch entstanden.

Viel später, im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, griffen auch die portugiesische Musik und Literatur das Motiv für sich auf.
Die ganze Idee des Fados basiert letztendlich auf Saudade - und nicht wenige Stücke führen sie im Titel oder im Text. Und auch so manch ein Dichter spielte mit dem sehnsuchtsvollen Gefühl: Zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts entwickelte der Poet Teixeira de Pascoaes mit einigen Gesinnungsgenossen die Bewegung des Saudosismo, die eine Wiedererweckung der portugiesischen Kultur zum Ziel hatte. Einer der gemeinsamen Nenner in dieser Bewegung war die Rückbesinnung auf das Gefühl der Saudade, das hier bis hin zur Rolle als "vergeistigte Liebe" weit überhöht wurde.
Und auch heute gehört die Saudade zu den Mysterien der portugiesischen Kultur.

Noch immer suchen die Übersetzer dieser Welt nach geeigneten Entsprechungen: Ist es das finnische kaiho, das ein ähnlich gelagertes Gefühl ausdrückt? Oder die vielleicht dann doch sehr deutsche, romantisch überlagerte Sehnsucht?

Jede Annäherung ist unzureichend - und so gilt "Saudade" nicht nur als eines der schönsten, sondern auch als eines der "unübersetzbarsten" Wörter der Welt: In dieser, vor drei Jahren von britischen Linguisten entwickelten Liste, belegte die Saudade ebenfalls einen Spitzenrang: Platz sieben, nur knapp hinter der holländischen Gemütlichkeitswelt von "gezellig" - welch ein Gegensatz.

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